A Portuguese father who suffers from color blindness received a special gift from his daughter – a pair of color correcting glasses she had been saving for two years to buy.
When my father saw the blue sky for the first time, he was surprised and moved. When he got back to the car, he couldn’t wait to take out his phone to see what color the dog’s hair was… Found the world is so colorful, the father excitedly holding his daughter sobbing.
Around us, so that some people live in, they will be able to see clearly the things around, but the perception of color is not as a normal person usually distinguish colors in their eyes, red apple is similar to the color of the pears, yellow and green grass color is similar to, or even the whole world is black and white, we call color blindness, Their world is less vivid and lively than ordinary people.
There are more than 200 million people in the world who are color blind, and 4 million babies are born each year.
Many people with color blindness do not realize that they have a defect and often discover that they have color blindness during a physical examination. Take the red-green color blindness as an example. When the color is not too complicated, they can also distinguish red from green, but they see red and green differently from us. For example, the lawn in their eyes is actually the yellow that ordinary people see, because everyone says it is green, so they also think it is a kind of green.
Although patients with color blindness have some difficulty in color resolution, they are much better at color shade resolution than the general population. During World War II, the Allies specifically recruited color-blind soldiers because they could easily tell the difference between an enemy in camouflage and their surroundings, thus finding out what was going on.
Compared with the vast majority of genetic diseases, color blindness does not have a great impact on life. Patients can live and work like normal people, but there are some restrictions in employment and schooling. For example, color-blind people are not allowed to be engaged in transportation, geology, art and other related majors, nor are they allowed to be involved in driving vehicles or ships.
what cause color blindness ?
Photoreceptor cells in the retina that sense red, green and blue convert different light into nerve signals that produce different color visions in the brain. These cells contain red sensitive pigment, green sensitive pigment and blue sensitive pigment, respectively. If the gene is abnormal, the corresponding visual pigment synthesis will be obstructed, and people can not distinguish the color vision, that is, color blindness.
Because the blue pigment gene is located on the autosome, there are few abnormalities in general, so blue color blindness is relatively rare, and the other two pigment genes are located on the X chromosome, which leads to the occurrence of color blindness with more male and less female “gender discrimination” phenomenon. Because women have two X chromosomes, when one is abnormal and the other is normal, they don’t show color blindness or weakness, they just carry the gene for color blindness. But men have only one X chromosome, and if there is a problem with the gene on that chromosome, that person is color blind. In real life, the incidence of color blindness in Chinese men is about 4.71%, and only about 0.67% in women.
Because the blue pigment gene is located on the autosome, there are few abnormalities in general, so blue color blindness is relatively rare, and the other two pigment genes are located on the X chromosome, which leads to the occurrence of color blindness with more male and less female “gender discrimination” phenomenon. Because women have two X chromosomes, when one is abnormal and the other is normal, they don’t show color blindness or weakness, they just carry the gene for color blindness. Colour blindness is not entirely inherited. Acquired color vision disorders can be caused by brain damage, drug intoxication, and certain vitamin deficiencies, and are rare and can be cured or improved with proper treatment. In real life, the incidence of color blindness in Chinese men is about 4.71%, and only about 0.67% in women.
Treatment of color blindness
Color blindness has the characteristics of lifelong and difficult to cure, which brings a lot of inconvenience to patients’ lives. There are strict restrictions on color blindness in social enrollment, employment, vehicle and ship driving, etc.
Since color blindness is mostly inherited disease, so far there is no cure, wearing color blindness glasses is the only effective method of correction. Color-blind glasses are specially coated on the lens to reflect the light that is too sensitive to the photosensitive cells through the filter membrane, and increase the light that is too weak in signal, so that the proportion of the three primary colors entering the human eye tends to be normal, and finally achieve the purpose of correct color discrimination.
If color-blind children can wear color-blind glasses from an early age, they will have the opportunity to correctly identify colors, which is beneficial to the cultivation of color discrimination ability when they grow up. In addition, when they start to contact with colors from an early age, over time, through memory, their color discrimination ability will be greatly enhanced when they grow up.
It should be noted that there are a lot of color blindness correction lenses for sale online now, and the price is not expensive. However, formal correction of color blindness requires professional instruments and techniques, as well as the determination of the type of color blindness and the grading of the degree, as well as the adjustment according to different visual acuity and conditions. Therefore, it is recommended to go to a formal, professional institution to match this kind of glasses.
Prevention of color blindness
For hereditary color blindness, prevention should be the priority.
First of all, in terms of marriage and childbearing, avoiding the marriage of close relatives and the marriage of patients with double color blindness can reduce the birth rate of color blindness.
Secondly, prenatal diagnosis can screen out the offspring of the disease. There are several different cases of color-blind offspring:
If two color-blind patients marry, their offspring must be color-blind.
When a woman with color blindness marries a normal man, her son will be the patient, and her daughter will be the visual color blindness gene carrier.
When a color-blind man marries a normal woman, his offspring will all be normal, but his daughter will have a half chance of carrying the gene.
When a carrier woman marries a color-blind man, her children have a 50 percent chance of developing color blindness, while daughters with normal color vision have a 50 percent chance of being carriers.
When a woman with normal colour vision marries a normal man, a son has half the chance of developing the disease, which is why two people with healthy vision have color-blind offspring.